1. My understanding of the “internal consistency reliability concept”- is that it measures the reliability of different items of survey used to measure the same characteristic. There may be varying answers for the same question from different residents yet the question is intended to measure the same characteristic. For example, the reliabilities reported for the “attitude to ageing process” showed a strong correlation between the ageism scales such as attitudes towards the elderly, attitudes to ageing, Sociable stereotypes and perceived ageing. This is because the variation was for the stereotyping scales for the low and high contacts were not found. Therefore, it means that there was no relationship between stereotyping and frequency of contact.
2. The “stereotypeof the capability” scale was significantly correlated to the attitude people have towards the ageing process. The alpha coefficient was 0.40 in 1988 and 0.30 in 1989 showing a strong correlation between the two stereotypes. There was a reverse score for the way people feel about their life in all age. They don’t feel enthusiastic about life in old age as well as not believing that the old people are able to concentrate on anything they do. They don’t believe that they can lead a satisfactory life in old age and this shows that younger people are threatened with beliefs of lost competence and lack of capabilities as they approach old age.
3. Experimental study- this is the study used to come up with this report and a Quasi-Experimental design was used which is most commonly used in social sciences as well as psychological studies. It involved selection of groups upon which variables were tested without carrying without a random pre-selection of groups and processes. The age of the applicant was divided arbitrarily as either 27 or 59 and they were all women in the 1988 study. This division was convenient and in the psychological situation, here was little disruption. After this selection, the experiment proceeded to the 1989 study with the stereotypes of the ageing people being varied with people’s attitudes towards the elderly, attitude tow the ageing process, the capability of the elderly and their social capacities. The independent variables used in this study were age, sex and ageing scales. The dependent variables were academic interests and contact with grandparents and elderly friends. The independent variables used were non-manipulated.
4. ‘Contact had been included because it was linked to a positive attitude in the earlier analyses. It did not play a significant role in this analysis, having neither a main nor an interactive effect’ (p. 12). This study means ‘non-existence’ of any above effects in Braithwaite et all 1993 study
Given the other relevant research on the effect of amount of contact which showed a positive effect and the researchers could have hypothesized an interaction effect such as “there is positive attitude of the adolescents and the young adults towards the elderly with increased contact.” This means that the higher the amount of contact, the more there is a positive attitude towards the elderly. The older people develop better attitudes towards their younger counterparts than vice versa.
5. Between subject design is used in social researches where subjects are randomly sampled from the population and randomly assigned one of the several groups which may be controls or treatment levels and the effects of the treatment is given by the comparison of the groups. The responses from a particular subject will only appear in one group. On the other hand, within-subjects designs occur where repeated observations are made on the same subject. An example of the within-subjects in the Braithwaite et al, research is where Anova was used to analyze a repeated observation of the effects of age, interests and contact on one subjeect, elderly people. There are variations for example on how young and older people relate to the elderly, which is different from how the effects of academic interests and contact time have on the same elderly people. The Anova analysis on the effects of applicants’ age on the academic interest is an example of between subject designs used in this research.
6. Intervention manipulation checks are very important in the assessments of the study to ensure that the intervention was successfully conducted. The specific purpose for including the intervention manipulations check in study 1 was to ensure that a cognitive economy function really helped in reducing stereotyping of the elderly. This assessment was done to ensure that the manipulation of cognitive economy function was achieved to ensure the desired effect of the stereotyping of the elderly.
7. The results of this study showed that ego protection intervention reduced stereotyping in an illusory correlation was great in women and it had a stereotype-arousing effect for men.
The Ego protection was an illusory correlation in women because it showed a boost in reduced stereotyping at first but it started reducing because it was only an illusion. There was arousal of reduced stereotyping in men and in continued to remain as long as their ego was being protected.
8. The research in question (Synder & miene 1994) conducted two separate studies to different points of time. In those studies the authors asked their participants following two questions in different ways: a) beliefs about current skills and abilities and b) beliefs about future skills and abilities. Their beliefs on their skills and abilities currently were positive and optimistic as compared to the beliefs they had about their future skills and abilities. This is because, they have a negative attitude towards ageing and they are not sure of their future abilities and skills.